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Telemedicine Cartoon

Posted on January 29, 2016 I Written By

John Lynn is the Founder of the HealthcareScene.com blog network which currently consists of 10 blogs containing over 8000 articles with John having written over 4000 of the articles himself. These EMR and Healthcare IT related articles have been viewed over 16 million times. John also manages Healthcare IT Central and Healthcare IT Today, the leading career Health IT job board and blog. John is co-founder of InfluentialNetworks.com and Physia.com. John is highly involved in social media, and in addition to his blogs can also be found on Twitter: @techguy and @ehrandhit and LinkedIn.

Thanks to @WTBunting for this week’s Fun Friday cartoon.

Healthcare Telemedicine Humor

Telemedicine and remote monitoring does raise a lot of interesting questions and situations. However, I’m starting to see a lot more people tackle those challenges. I look forward to that future.

Meet Steve Sisko (aka @HITConfGuy and @ShimCode) – #GoesBeyond

Posted on January 28, 2016 I Written By

John Lynn is the Founder of the HealthcareScene.com blog network which currently consists of 10 blogs containing over 8000 articles with John having written over 4000 of the articles himself. These EMR and Healthcare IT related articles have been viewed over 16 million times. John also manages Healthcare IT Central and Healthcare IT Today, the leading career Health IT job board and blog. John is co-founder of InfluentialNetworks.com and Physia.com. John is highly involved in social media, and in addition to his blogs can also be found on Twitter: @techguy and @ehrandhit and LinkedIn.

The healthcare IT recruiters at Greythorn (Full Disclosure: Greythorn pays to post jobs on our Healthcare IT Central job board), have started to share stories on a new hashtag called #GoesBeyond. As part of this effort, they’re highlighting people in healthcare IT who go above and beyond and deliver something special. Check out this great #GoesBeyond featuring Regina Holliday to see what I mean. I’m all about the idea of recognizing people who are doing great work and contributing to healthcare IT in a way that goes above and beyond, so I thought I’d join in on the fun.

Over the past couple years I’ve been impressed by the work of Steve Sisko and his efforts to go above and beyond on social media. If you don’t work in the payer world, you might not know the name Steve Sisko, but if you participate in healthcare social media you probably do know Steve’s aliases @HITConfGuy and @ShimCode. Not only is Steve prolific on social media, but the quality of information he provides is off the charts. I’m always amazed how quickly Steve can pull up a high quality resource during Twitter chats or other social media engagements.

As part of Steve’s creation of the @HITConfGuy Twitter account, he also launched the blog HITConfGuy.com. On this blog Steve provides his unique mix of humor and high quality content to both entertain and inform those of us who spend time at healthcare IT conferences. However, I believe that Steve’s posts on HIT Conf Guy are even more valuable to those who don’t spend their time traveling to healthcare IT conferences as part of their career.

A great example of this is Steve’s 30 tips for attending the HIMSS 2016 conference in Las Vegas. This is so chalk full of tips, I just laugh when I see other people trying to post about tips for #HIMSS16. I think to myself, Steve’s already posted all the tips you need and he’s likely done it better than what others throw together last minute. You might also want to check out his post on social sharing at healthcare IT conferences like HIMSS and you’ll bust a gut laughing at his useful (and some not so useful, but funny) Totally Unofficial HIMSS Hashtag guide.

Beyond all his work providing tips, tricks, and humor around healthcare IT conferences, Steve has spent countless hours curating what I’d call his list of healthcare IT lists. If you’re looking for who to follow in healthcare social media, his lists can help you. If you want a list of healthcare IT resources, he likely has one. He even put in an extremely large amount of time into filtering through the mass of #HIT99 tweets to create the #HIT99 list.

The most amazing part of all of these efforts by Steve is that he doesn’t get paid anything to do it. Maybe he has some longer term aspiration of making these efforts into a business (I don’t know either way), but to date he’s done all of this to contribute to the healthcare IT community. In fact, I’ve often heard Steve bristle at some of the things that happen on social media that were so revenue driven. Steve really does want to improve healthcare.

That’s why I’m highlighting Steve Sisko for #GoesBeyond. I hope many others who read this will take part in the #GoesBeyond effort and highlight other people in the healthcare IT community that deserve recognition.

About #GoesBeyond
In this series, writers take time thank an individual who #GoesBeyond expectations to make an impact in their community or industry. Read other posts in this series on LinkedIn and Twitter, then write one of your own on your favorite blog, LinkedIn pulse, Medium or other platform. Use #GoesBeyond and @mention the person who has made such a big difference, then copy this paragraph so others know how they can participate, too.

Solution for “Too Many Clicks” Problem in EHR?

Posted on January 27, 2016 I Written By

John Lynn is the Founder of the HealthcareScene.com blog network which currently consists of 10 blogs containing over 8000 articles with John having written over 4000 of the articles himself. These EMR and Healthcare IT related articles have been viewed over 16 million times. John also manages Healthcare IT Central and Healthcare IT Today, the leading career Health IT job board and blog. John is co-founder of InfluentialNetworks.com and Physia.com. John is highly involved in social media, and in addition to his blogs can also be found on Twitter: @techguy and @ehrandhit and LinkedIn.

I’ve long been intrigued by the complaint I hear from doctors about “too many clicks” in the EHR. Long time readers may even remember my piano analogy which looks at the issue of too many mouseclicks and keystrokes in EHR software. I still think that largely applies today.

With that said, I’ve been fascinated to watch the evolution of click free solutions like what Note Swift is offering. Many are familiar with Dragon Naturally speaking an in particular the Dragon Medical product. It does amazing voice recognition. What I love about NoteSwift is that it takes Dragon’s voice recognition and integrates it naturally into the EHR interface.

Here’s a demo video that was all done by voice using NoteSwift to illustrate how it works:

I think it’s fascinating to see the evolution of these products. Plus, with things like Siri. “Ok Google”, and even Amazon Echo,we’re creating a culture of people who are use to using their voice to do things. So, that will help efforts like the one above.

No doubt doctors are blown away by the concept of documenting a patient visit with 1, 3, or 5 clicks. Now let me leave what’s available today and think into the future. Imagine a video EHR which was voice enabled. The doctor could literally go into the room and using video, voice recognition, NLP, technologies like NoteSwift, connected devices, etc they could easily chart a note with no clicks. While that’s not happening tomorrow, it’s not as far fetched as you might imagine.

Will New Group Steal Thunder From CommonWell Health Alliance?

Posted on January 26, 2016 I Written By

Anne Zieger is veteran healthcare consultant and analyst with 20 years of industry experience. Zieger formerly served as editor-in-chief of FierceHealthcare.com and her commentaries have appeared in dozens of international business publications, including Forbes, Business Week and Information Week. She has also contributed content to hundreds of healthcare and health IT organizations, including several Fortune 500 companies. Contact her at @ziegerhealth on Twitter or visit her site at Zieger Healthcare.

Back in March 0f 2013, six health IT vendors came together to announce the launch of the CommonWell Health Alliance. The group, which included Cerner, McKesson, Allscripts, athenahealth, Greenway Medical Technologies and RelayHealth, said they were forming the not-for-profit organization to foster national health data interoperability. (Being a cynical type, I immediately put it in a mental file tagged “The Group Epic Refused To Join,” but maybe that wasn’t fair since it looks like the other EHR vendors might have left Epic out on purpose.)

Looked at from some perspectives, the initiative has been a success. Over the past couple of years or so, CommonWell developed service specifications for interoperability and deployed a national network for health data sharing. The group has also attracted nearly three dozen HIT companies as members, with capabilities extending well beyond EMRs.

And according to recently-appointed executive director Jitin Asnaani, CommonWell is poised to have more than 5,000 provider sites using its services across the U.S. That will include more than 1,200 of Cerner’s provider sites. Also, Greenway Health and McKesson provider sites should be able to share health data with other CommonWell participants.

While all of this sounds promising, it’s not as though we’ve seen a great leap in interoperability for most providers. This is probably why new interoperability-focused initiatives have emerged. Just last week, five major HIT players announced that they would be the first to implement the Carequality Interoperability Framework.

The five vendors include, notably, Epic, along with athenahealth, eClinicalWorks, NextGen Healthcare and Surescripts. While the Carequality team might not be couching things this way, to me it seems likely that it intends to roll on past (if not over) the CommonWell effort.

Carequality is an initiative of The Sequoia Project, a DC-area non-profit. While it shares CommonWell’s general mission in fostering nationwide health information exchange, that’s where its similarities to CommonWell appear to end:

* Unlike CommonWell, which is almost entirely vendor-focused, Sequoia’s members also include the AMA, Kaiser Permanente, Minute Clinic, Walgreens and Surescripts.

* The Carequality Interoperability Framework includes not only technical specifications for achieving interoperability, but also legal and governance documents helping implementers set up data sharing in legally-appropriate ways between themselves and patients.

* The Framework is designed to allow providers, payers and other health organizations to integrate pre-existing connectivity efforts such as previously-implemented HIEs.

I don’t know whether the Carequality effort is complimentary to CommonWell or an attempt to eclipse it. It’s hard for me to tell whether the presence of a vendor on both membership lists (athenahealth) is an attempt to learn from both sides or a preparation for jumping ship. In other words, I’m not sure whether this is a “game changer,” as one health IT trade pub put it, or just more buzz around interoperability.

But if I were a betting woman, I’d stake hard, cold dollars that Carequality is destined to pick up the torch CommonWell lit. That being said, I do hope the two cooperate or even merge, as I’m sure the very smart people associated with these efforts can learn from each other. If they fight for mindshare, it’d be a major waste of time and talent.

Meaningful Use Holdover Could Be Good News For Healthcare

Posted on January 25, 2016 I Written By

Anne Zieger is veteran healthcare consultant and analyst with 20 years of industry experience. Zieger formerly served as editor-in-chief of FierceHealthcare.com and her commentaries have appeared in dozens of international business publications, including Forbes, Business Week and Information Week. She has also contributed content to hundreds of healthcare and health IT organizations, including several Fortune 500 companies. Contact her at @ziegerhealth on Twitter or visit her site at Zieger Healthcare.

I know all of us are a flutter about the pending regulatory changes which will phase out Meaningful Use as we know it. And yes, without a doubt, the changes underway will have an impact that extends well beyond the HIT world. But while big shifts are underway in federal incentives programs, it’s worth noting that it could be a while before these changes actually fall into place.

As readers may know, the healthcare industry will be transitioning to working under value-based payment under the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act, which passed last year. But as ONC’s Karen DeSalvo noted last week, the transition could take a while In fact, proposed draft regulations for MACRA rollout will be released this spring for public comment. When you toss in the time needed for those comments to be submitted, and for the feds to digest those comments and respond, my guess is that MACRA regs won’t go live until late this year at the earliest.

The truth is, this is probably a very good thing. While I don’t have to tell you folks that everyone and their cousin has a Meaningful Use gripe, the truth is that the industry has largely adapted to the MU mindset. Maybe Meaningful Use Stage 3 wouldn’t have provided a lot of jollies, but on the whole, arguably, most providers have come to terms with the level of process documentation required — and have bought their big-bucks EMRs, committing once and for all to the use of digital health records.

Value-based payment, on the other hand, is another thing entirely. From what I’ve read and researched to date, few health organizations have really sunk their teeth into VBP, though many are dabbling. When MACRA regs finally combine the Physician Quality Reporting System, the Value-based Payment Modifier and the Medicare EHR incentive program into a single entity, providers will face some serious new challenges.

Sure, on the surface the idea of providers being paid for the quality and efficiency they deliver sounds good. Rather than using a strict set of performance measures as proxies for quality, the new MACRA-based programs will focus on a mix of quality, resource use and clinical practice use measures, along with measuring meaningful use of certified EHR technology. Under these terms, health systems could conceivably enjoy both greater freedom and better payoffs.

However, given health systems’ experiences to date, particularly with ACOs, I’m skeptical that they’ll be able to pick up the ball and run with the new incentives off the bat. For example, health systems have been abandoning CMS’s value-based Pioneer ACO model at a brisk clip, after finding it financially unworkable. One recent case comes from Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, which dropped out of the program in October of last year after losing more than $3 million over the previous two years.

I’m not suggesting that health systems can afford to ignore VBP models, or that sticking to MU incentives as previously structured would make sense. But if the process of implementing MACRA gives the industry a chance to do more preparing for value-based payment, it’s probably a good thing.

Fun Friday – Healthcare Funnies

Posted on January 22, 2016 I Written By

John Lynn is the Founder of the HealthcareScene.com blog network which currently consists of 10 blogs containing over 8000 articles with John having written over 4000 of the articles himself. These EMR and Healthcare IT related articles have been viewed over 16 million times. John also manages Healthcare IT Central and Healthcare IT Today, the leading career Health IT job board and blog. John is co-founder of InfluentialNetworks.com and Physia.com. John is highly involved in social media, and in addition to his blogs can also be found on Twitter: @techguy and @ehrandhit and LinkedIn.

It’s Friday and time for the weekend. Here’s a little healthcare IT humor for your entertainment:
EHR Documentation Cartoon - Physician Dissatisfaction
Sad but true in many EHR.

Insurance Stress
Every doctor understand this challenge. Now every patient’s starting to understand it as well.

Is Practice Fusion Heading for an IPO?

Posted on January 21, 2016 I Written By

John Lynn is the Founder of the HealthcareScene.com blog network which currently consists of 10 blogs containing over 8000 articles with John having written over 4000 of the articles himself. These EMR and Healthcare IT related articles have been viewed over 16 million times. John also manages Healthcare IT Central and Healthcare IT Today, the leading career Health IT job board and blog. John is co-founder of InfluentialNetworks.com and Physia.com. John is highly involved in social media, and in addition to his blogs can also be found on Twitter: @techguy and @ehrandhit and LinkedIn.

The New York Times recently reported that Practice Fusion is said to have hired JP Morgan Chase to evaluate an IPO. Here’s a look at the estimated IPO number for Practice Fusion according to the New York Times:

Practice Fusion later created a way to estimate its I.P.O. valuation if revenue came in at $155 million in 2018 instead of $181 million, according to one of the people. Using the lower revenue assumption, the company could command a valuation of $1.1 billion to $1.2 billion if it goes public. It is unclear if the lower revenue estimate was made in response to the market turmoil.

Practice Fusion itself is of course not really commenting on their plans for an IPO or not. However, since it has raised $149 million to date at a valuation of $635 million, you have to imagine that an IPO is in their future. However, many big silicon valley companies have stuck to the private market lately and avoided the IPO. I’m not sure Practice Fusion will be in a similar position to them though. A look at their revenue numbers is one indication of why they’re a bit different than other companies that have raised larger rounds in the private markets:

Practice Fusion’s revenue was $26.9 million in 2014 and was expected to increase by 71 percent to $46.1 million in 2015, with the company projecting it would pare losses by 40 percent to $25.8 million in 2015, according to the document prepared by bankers and the company.

At the time the document was prepared, the company estimated revenue would hit $70 million in 2016.

I personally think that an IPO is in Practice Fusion’s future. It’s just a question of when it will happen. Certainly the market volatility we’ve seen lately isn’t helping their case to do an IPO. However, I bet the bigger challenge is going to be creating attractive revenue numbers that make sense to the public markets. I believe public markets have a hard time valuing number of users and other metrics that make Practice Fusion look attractive.

Ever since the first venture capitalists asked me about Practice Fusion, I’ve said that the company has created value. The number of doctors they were able to sign up on their platform was impressive. That’s the power of offering something for free that other doctors pay hundreds of thousands of dollars to buy. No doubt their network of physician users is a valuable asset. I hope it is since they raised $149 million to build it.

The real question for me around Practice Fusion isn’t whether they created value. Instead, the question is how valuable is what they created? I once heard Peter Thiel suggest at their user conference that Practice Fusion was building the platform for healthcare. Building that would be worth multiple billions of dollars. However, Practice Fusion hasn’t built anything close to that since Practice Fusion is doing nothing in the hospital EHR space. It’s naive to think that Practice Fusion could compete in that piece of healthcare. Not to mention they have a very small part of the hospital owned ambulatory practice space where the trend is to go with the integrated hospital EHR solution.

Long story short, I think that Practice Fusion will do an IPO. I could even see them doing an IPO for a billion dollars. I’m sure that’s what Ryan Howard, Practice Fusion Founder and former CEO, wants so he can claim his startup unicorn status. Although, I’ll be interested to see how Practice Fusion’s revenue grows between now and an IPO. The golden age of EHR is over and we’re entering the dirty slog of EHR sales and EHR switching. I don’t think that makes for a compelling story for investors.

Physician Burnout Chart

Posted on January 20, 2016 I Written By

John Lynn is the Founder of the HealthcareScene.com blog network which currently consists of 10 blogs containing over 8000 articles with John having written over 4000 of the articles himself. These EMR and Healthcare IT related articles have been viewed over 16 million times. John also manages Healthcare IT Central and Healthcare IT Today, the leading career Health IT job board and blog. John is co-founder of InfluentialNetworks.com and Physia.com. John is highly involved in social media, and in addition to his blogs can also be found on Twitter: @techguy and @ehrandhit and LinkedIn.

We’ve been writing a lot about Physician burnout and Physician dissatisfaction lately. This chart and tweet that Rasu Shrestha, MD shared puts some data behind what we’re talking about:

Physician Burn Out

The EMR and the Doctor-Patient Relationship

Posted on January 19, 2016 I Written By

John Lynn is the Founder of the HealthcareScene.com blog network which currently consists of 10 blogs containing over 8000 articles with John having written over 4000 of the articles himself. These EMR and Healthcare IT related articles have been viewed over 16 million times. John also manages Healthcare IT Central and Healthcare IT Today, the leading career Health IT job board and blog. John is co-founder of InfluentialNetworks.com and Physia.com. John is highly involved in social media, and in addition to his blogs can also be found on Twitter: @techguy and @ehrandhit and LinkedIn.

Today I was included on what I’d consider a tweetstorm about the EMR and they ways it can impede the Doctor-Patient relationship. I thought many of you would find his comments interesting and might want to add to and extend his comments.

Those are some strong opinions? While I’d love to visit his office, I don’t really need to visit it. I’ve seen many doctors not use the computer in the exam room so they could focus on the patient. In fact, I’ve seen the whole spectrum of computer use in the exam room from a lot to none. My conclusion is similar to the one that Amy Hamilton described here. The setup can really impact the experience of the patient.

I do agree with Dr. Ashinsky that many doctors are spending too much time on the data/computer and not enough time on the patient. That doesn’t mean that the data isn’t important, but many have taken it too far.

What do you think? Does the computer get in the way of he doctor-patient relationship?

Eric Topol tweeted one suggestion:

Streamlining Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research in Software Agile Fashion

Posted on January 18, 2016 I Written By

Andy Oram is an editor at O’Reilly Media, a highly respected book publisher and technology information provider. An employee of the company since 1992, Andy currently specializes in open source, software engineering, and health IT, but his editorial output has ranged from a legal guide covering intellectual property to a graphic novel about teenage hackers. His articles have appeared often on EMR & EHR and other blogs in the health IT space.

Andy also writes often for O’Reilly’s Radar site (http://oreilly.com/) and other publications on policy issues related to the Internet and on trends affecting technical innovation and its effects on society. Print publications where his work has appeared include The Economist, Communications of the ACM, Copyright World, the Journal of Information Technology & Politics, Vanguardia Dossier, and Internet Law and Business. Conferences where he has presented talks include O’Reilly’s Open Source Convention, FISL (Brazil), FOSDEM, and DebConf.

Medical research should not be in a crisis. More people than ever before want its products, and have the money to pay for them. More people than ever want to work in the field as well, and they’re uncannily brilliant and creative. It should be a golden era. So the myriad of problems faced by this industry–sources of revenue slipping away from pharma companies, a shift of investment away from cutting-edge biomedical firms, prices of new drugs going through the roof–must lie with the development processes used in the industry.

Like many other industries, biomedicine is contrasted with the highly successful computer industry. Although the financial prospects of this field have sagged recently (with hints of an upcoming dot-com bust similar to the early 2000s), there’s no doubt that computer people have mastered a process for churning out new, appealing products and services. Many observers dismiss the comparison between biomedicine and software, pointing out that the former has to deal much more with the prevalence of regulations, the dominance of old-fashioned institutions, and the critical role of intellectual property (patents).

Still, I find a lot of intriguing parallels between how software is developed and how biomedical research becomes products. Coding up a software idea is so simple now that it’s done by lots of amateurs, and Web services can try out and throw away new features on a daily basis. What’s expensive is getting the software ready for production, a task that requires strict processes designed and carried out by experienced professionals. Similarly, in biology, promising new compounds pop up all the time–the hard part is creating a delivery mechanism that is safe and reliable.

Generating Ideas: An Ever-Improving Environment

Software development has benefited in the past decade from an incredible degree of evolving support:

  • Programming languages that encapsulate complex processes in concise statements, embody best practices, and facilitate maintenance through modularization and support for testing

  • Easier development environments, especially in the cloud, which offer sophisticated test tools (such as ways to generate “mock” data for testing and rerun tests automatically upon each change to the code), easy deployment, and performance monitoring

  • An endless succession of open source libraries to meet current needs, so that any problem faced by programmers in different settings is solved by the first wave of talented programmers that encounter it

  • Tools for sharing and commenting on code, allowing massively distributed teams to collaborate

Programmers have a big advantage over most fields, in that they are experts in the very skills that produce the tools they use. They have exploited this advantage of the years to make software development cheaper, faster, and more fun. Treated by most of the industry as a treasure of intellectual property, software is actually becoming a commodity.

Good software still takes skill and experience, no doubt about that. Some research has discovered that a top programmer is one hundred times as productive as a mediocre one. And in this way, the programming field also resembles biology. In both cases, it takes a lot of effort and native talent to cross the boundary from amateur to professional–and yet more than enough people have done so to provoke unprecedented innovation. The only thing holding back medical research is lack of funding–and that in turn is linked to costs. If we lowered the costs of drug development and other treatments, we’d free up billions of dollars to employ the thousands of biologists, chemists, and others striving to enter the field.

Furthermore, there are encouraging signs that biologists in research labs and pharma companies are using open source techniques as software programmers do to cut down waste and help each other find solutions faster, as described in another recent article and my series on Sage Bionetworks. If we can expand the range of what companies call “pre-competitive research” and sign up more of the companies to join the commons, innovation in biotech will increase.

On the whole, most programming teams practice agile development, which is creative, circles around a lot, and requires a lot of collaboration. Some forms of development still call for a more bureaucratic process of developing requirements, approving project plans, and so forth–you can’t take an airplane back to the hanger for a software upgrade if a bug causes it to crash into a mountain. And all those processes exist in agile development too, but subject to a more chaotic process. The descriptions I’ve read of drug development hark of similar serendipity and unanticipated twists.

The Chasm Between Innovation and Application

The reason salaries for well-educated software developers are skyrocketing is that going from idea to implementation is an entirely different job from idea generation.

Software that works in a test environment often wilts when exposed to real-life operating conditions. It has to deal with large numbers of requests, with ill-formed or unanticipated requests from legions of new users, with physical and operational interruptions that may result from a network glitch halfway around the world, with malicious banging from attackers, and with cost considerations associated with scaling up.

In recent years, the same developers who created great languages and development tools have put a good deal of ingenuity into tools to solve these problems as well. Foremost, as I mentioned before, are cloud offerings–Infrastructure as a Service or Platform as a Service–that take hardware headaches out of consideration. At the cost of increased complexity, cloud solutions let people experiment more freely.

In addition, a bewildering plethora of tools address every task an operations person must face: creating new instances of programs, scheduling them, apportioning resources among instances, handling failures, monitoring them for uptime and performance, and so on. You can’t count the tools built just to help operations people collect statistics and create visualizations so they can respond quickly to problems.

In medicine, what happens to a promising compound? It suddenly runs into a maze of complicated and costly requirements:

  • It must be tested on people, animals, or (best of all) mock environments to demonstrate safety.

  • Researchers must determine what dose, delivered in what medium, can withstand shipping and storage, get into the patient, and reach its target.

  • Further testing must reassure regulators and the public that the drug does its work safely and effectively, a process that involves enormous documentation.

As when deploying software, developing and testing a treatment involves much more risk and many more people than the original idea took. But software developers are making progress on their deployment problem. Perhaps better tools and more agile practices can cut down the tool taken by the various phases of pharma development. Experiments being run now include:

  • Sharing data about patients more widely (with their consent) and using big data to vastly increase the pool of potential test subjects. This is crucial because a a large number of tests fail for lack of subjects

  • Using big data also to track patients better and more quickly find side effects and other show-stoppers, as well as potential off-label uses.

  • Tapping into patient communities to determine better what products they need, run tests more efficiently, and keep fewer from dropping out.

There’s hope for pharma and biomedicine. The old methods are reaching the limits of their effectiveness, as we demand ever more proof of safety and effectiveness. The medical field can’t replicate what software developers have done for themselves, but it can learn a lot from them nevertheless.